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“Long known as the parent and child with the level of activity,” said study author Christian Holm, assistant professor of medicine at National Jewish Health in Denver. “[The study] shows that when parents increase their activity, raising their children as well. More pronounced effect on the weekend. ‘
How the study was conducted
The research, published in the Journal of Physical Activity and Health, involving 83 families to participate in a program designed to prevent weight gain among children of overweight and obesity from age seven to 14.
Parents and children in the program are encouraged to increase their activity levels daily by walking 2000 steps per day. Pedometer to track their progress.
These studies reveal that women have now reached or exceeded 2000-step goals, their children took an average of 2117 steps. If the mother does not achieve that goal, their children take just 1175 extra steps. The researchers suggest that children are less active when the program starts over taking more steps than children who are less active.
In general, the researchers found that for every 1,000 additional step taken by a mother, her son take the further steps of 196. The researchers found similar patterns between fathers and their children.
The researchers suggest that parents and children work together more often on the weekends result in increased exercise.
Among other findings, the study showed that fathers tend to be more likely to share an embrace than spankings to their children when in public.
The study, from a team at Michigan State University, published in the journal Behavioral and Social Issues.
How the study was conducted
According to the researchers, parents dealing with unruly children in public places often resort to “negative press” – actions such as arm-taking, slapping pinching, and hitting. But “positive contact,” such as patting, tickling or hugging, is generally more effective in getting children to behave, say researchers.
In conducting the study, researchers witnessed 106 incidents of unrecognized students between caregivers and children between the ages of three and five years in public places, such as restaurants and parks. Studies revealed that 23% of children receive some kind of negative press when they are not doing what they are asked to do by their parents.
“I was very surprised with what many people consider undesirable social behavior conducted by almost a quarter of the caregivers,” says study leader Kathy Stansbury, trained psychologist and professor at Michigan State University in the department of human development and family studies,. “I’ve seen hundreds of children and their parents in a laboratory setting and never witnessed any such behavior.”
Softer than thought dad
Although research shows men hitting guardians of children (whether negative or positive way) more often than women, most of the time these men provide children with positive contact.
“When we think about the father, we thought him to be disciplined, and the mother as a caregiver, but it just is not what we see,” said Stansbury. “I think that we have evolved as a society and fathers become more involved in the day-to-day mechanics of raising a child, and that’s a good thing for the kids and also a good thing for a father . “
The authors of the study suggest that children are followed more often and more quickly to positive than negative contact link or physical forms of punishment.
“If your child is angry, and do not take care of you and want to punish them, I’ll use touch, mild positive,” said Stansbury. “The data we see that the negative press does not work.”
New mutations arise in cells of the human sperm near the time of conception rather than hereditary. They are linked to the relatively rare cases of non-descent autism.
Researchers in Iceland genomes of 78 families looking for new mutations they first appear, and see how the number of mutations in children associated with their age. In most families, the children have a good non-hereditary autism or schizophrenia.
How the study was conducted
The research, published in the journal Nature, found that each year she ages, she is expected to serve more than two additional new (or “de novo”) mutation. Over 97% of new mutations in children described by having an older father.
“Father is an important contributor to mutation, and even de novo mutations occur at random, the mutations you have, the more likely you will have a gene that is important,” said study author Dr.. Kari Stefansson, CEO of decode genetics, genome analysis company based in Reykjavik, Iceland.
Previous studies have linked to increased rates of spontaneous mutation in older fathers based on a sequence of specific regions of the genome, the study is the first to make connection based on data from the entire genome of the parents and their children, Stefansson said.
“This study is further establishes that paternal age is a risk factor for the [non-descendants] autism,” says Daniel Smith, senior director of Neuroscience discovery at Autism Speaks, an autism organization research and advocacy.
Although it is not known how many cases of autism non-hereditary, so far only considered to be less than 1 percent of cases of autism, Smith said.
Rates of autism spectrum disorders in the United States continues to climb and is now estimated to affect one in 88 children, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
“Does [a father age] account for the increased prevalence of autism itself is very unlikely,” said Smith. “It is certainly in the mix as an important risk factor.”
The current study of 78 families in Iceland including 44 children with autism spectrum disorder and 21 children with schizophrenia. In most cases, the parents are not affected by this disorder.
The Stefansson and his colleagues analyzed the entire genome of the parent-child set for certain types of mutations called single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which is one typo only affects a letter of DNA code .
What the research shows
The team found that the number of new mutations strongly associated with the age of the father, while the relationship between the rate of mutation and age of the mothers was not statistically significant.
Furthermore, the data suggest that paternal age is associated with a robust increase in mutation, rather than reaching the “tipping point” age after mutation more likely, Stefansson said.
Men may be more likely to submit new mutations to their children as they age because their reproductive cells to divide and produces sperm throughout their lives, and each cell division is an opportunity for genetic errors made. In contrast, women are born with a full set of eggs.
Team found new mutations in certain gene involved in autism and schizophrenia, as well as the development of the nervous system and behavior modification.
The role of new mutations in the risk of disease is not limited to autism and schizophrenia, and they can contribute to other diseases with a non-descent cases, such as epilepsy, Stefansson said. “It begins to look like there is a big enough pain where the contribution de novo mutations are significant,” he said.
In addition to spontaneous mutation, environmental factors may play a role in non-descent of autism cases, Smith said, explaining that environmental factors are known, an older man with more time to be exposed to, be promote genetic error during the production of sperm.
Despite the increased rate of new mutations in children with paternal age, it should not be a reason for older men to avoid procreating or for young men to freeze their sperm , Stefansson said.
“We do not know what percentage of cases of autism and schizophrenia are caused by de novo mutations,” he explained. “The risk is not great.”
“On a larger scale, in the context of our species, increased mutation rates increase diversity as we grow,” says Stefansson. “Getting rid of further mutations can make us as a species more suited to survive the next natural disaster.”
“This study should not be used as a guide for parents,” said Smith. “Many cases of autism from parents in their 20s.”
Separated and divorced spouse becomes using e-mail, SMS and social media to interact with their former partners about their children. However, when the ex-wife to use technology to hold or manipulate information, the children suffer the most, according to the University of Missouri expert in the study of the family.
A new study suggests separate divorce counselors must teach parents how to effectively use communication technologies to maintain a healthy environment for their children.
Using technology as a tool
Lawrence Ganong, a professor of human development and family studies at MU, found that the former partners to collaborate with each other using e-mail and SMS to facilitate effective co-parenting, wife do not get along as communication technology that is used to avoid confrontation and control access to their former colleagues for their children.
“Technology is making it easier for the divorced wife to hang out, and also makes it easier for them to not get along,” said Ganong, who is also a professor of nursing at MU. “Parents who use technology effectively co-parenting easier, which puts less fatigue in children. Parents who use communication technology to manipulate or withhold information from the other parent can cause the disease in children. ‘
Ganong and her colleagues interviewed 49 parents divorced individuals about the quality of their relationship with their former partner.
Parents may see a cooperative relationship communication technologies (e-mail, SMS) as an effective tool to coordinate the exchange of their children, and some even use the online calendar to share information about activities of their children. However, parents who have hostile relations were separated using the same technology to manipulate their ex-wives and communication limitations.
For example, some parents in the study pretend they never received an e-mail from a former colleague. Regardless of how some get along, mostly divorced parents are using communications technology to maintain the boundaries of the house and build a record of decision.
When divorces end with some hostility between the parents, such a focus suggests that the divorce counselor husband teach effective ways to use technology to communicate with each other. Doing so will help children transition more smoothly between the two houses and keep them from parents caught in the middle of the conflict, he said.
How can technology help
“Parents need to set up hostile feelings aside and understand that they need to communicate effectively to protect the emotional well-being of their children,” said Ganong. “E-mail is a great resource for parents who are not hostile to speak face-to-face. They can convey important information when you edit what they say to avoid conflict. Also, parents have a record of what is agreed. ‘
Ganong is a professor in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies College of Human Environmental Sciences and also a professor in the Sinclair School of Nursing.
The study, “coparenting and Communication Technology Postdivorce” co-created by Marilyn Coleman, Richard Tyler Jamison Feistman and the University of Missouri and Melinda Stafford Markham from Kansas State University. Studies published last month in the journal Family Relations.